USSR’s and CIA’s interest towards Parapsychology

Since the 1920s, both Russian and American Intelligence were deeply interested in understanding how memory and the Human mind worked. For them, the science involving the biological and the psychic aspects of Humanity showed promising methods for espionage. During the 20s up until the 90s, Russian, American, and Czechoslovakian research into possible mind/behavior control techniques such as; Hypnosis, sensory deprivation, Hypnopedia, Subliminal Perception, Suggestology, Psychopharmacology, Psycho optics, Infra/ultrasonic noise, Parapsychology/Biocommunications and others were conducted for possible Intelligence use.

The distinction between the CIA’s and the USSR’s research

It is important to notice that Russian and American Intelligence saw Parapsychology/Biocommunications very differently. Putting aside all Rumors and misinformation, on who started researching it first, the interest in Parapsychology/Biocommunications dates back to the 1920s. However, even at its start, Parapsychology was for the American Intelligence nothing but a joke. Whereas for the Russians, it started off as a serious topic, which eventually became a joke labeled by the media and scientists who despised this form of “science”, calling it Pseudo-science.

Parapsychology/Biocommunications is a study involving the informational and energetic possibilities of psychic and biophysical activities of living organisms. It involves the investigation of the interaction of living organisms with each other, objects, the surrounding environment, and how they interpret such information. To put it short, it is the science of understanding and mastering the form of achieving information from other than our five senses, (Seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, feeling (touch)), also known by the west as Extrasensory Perception (ESP) or Sixth sense.

For the Russians, Parapsychology was known as Biocommunications which was divided into two categories:

Bio-Information (subjective): The paranormal events between living organisms and events between living organisms and the inanimate world. Things such as: 

  • Telepathy: The transmission or reading of thoughts, the extrasensory reception of information about the mental processes of others. 
  • Proscopy/Precognition: Involves certain circumstances where one could assume that it has the potential of trespassing the barrier of time, (towards the future), to obtain information about objective events in the outer world. 
  • Paragnosia/Clairvoyance: The ability to receive information about events in the outer world, at the present time. 

Bio-energetics (Objective): Denotes the activities such as biological locator and indicator techniques (dowsing), bioenergetic therapy, using electromagnetic EM fields, and psychokinesis (PK), or the influence of Bioenergy (Bioplasma, Orgone energy, Odic Force…etc) on others and the outside world. (1)

They also distinguished Biocommunications from Psychophysiology, but later on, the whole field of paranormal research became known as Psychotronics. (2)

The U.S however, identified it as Extrasensory Perception (ESP), Psi Phenomena, or Parapsychology.

According to a few files I found, this form of science started off with a rocky start, mainly because of its lack of understanding. We knew and still know such phenomena oddly occurs, but since it lacks foundation, we feel safer to assume that it is a coincidence. Similar to how scientists today, still do not understand how neurons communicate with each other, however, we know they still do. (3) Because of this lack of understanding, lack of sources to comprehend its capacity, trusting these theories leads us to question current beliefs and views towards modern science.

Instead of being open to actually figuring out what it is, we have divided parties, one focused on proving these “phenomenas” as pseudo-science, religious/mystic based, while the other party only seeks to prove the accuracy of their theories. Both refusing to explore it outside their personal bias.

History and criticism

Throughout history, various scientists have shown a form of interest in certain aspects of what later became known as parapsychology. In Russia however, it only started growing in 1924 when A. V. Lunakharsky, (Commissar for Education), took the initiative in forming a Soviet committee for Psychical Research. Where later V. M Bekhterevs, (Russian neuroscientist), work on the subject was financed at the University of Leningrad, (St. Petersburg), Institute for Brain Research. One of his students, L. L Vasiliev, firmly promoted that telepathic influence at a distance may indeed occur. Telepathy was a topic of heavy interest from 1934 up to 1937, until experiments on the subject became forbidden and soon telepathy became a mystic, antisocial superstition that led to the silence of its mention up until 1950. (4)

Around 1950, the time when both Russian and American Intelligence was playing “God” with different “possible weaponry usable science” techniques, rumors began to circulate that American researchers had disproved the brain-radio theory of telepathy, through experiments involving the U.S atomic submarine, Nautilus.

Because of this, the Soviet authorities permitted Vasiliev, professor of physiology and holder of the order of Lenin, to publish his own earlier work in which shows that he had proved decades previously that radio-type brain waves didn’t mediate telepathy. After his work had been published he received an audience interested in his work from England. (One of those works being; Experiments in mental suggestion (1963)) He believed that “the discovery of the laws of the as yet unknown form of energy bound to man, will be of no less significance than the discovery of atomic energy.” (5)

Since 1972 things had escalated both in Russia and in the west. In that same year, V. M. Bleykher, (Soviet neurophysiologist), published a book titled “Parapsychology; science or superstition”. The whole purpose of the book was to rather prove or convince the reader that Parapsychology was linking 19th-century spiritualism with 20th-century psychology. In 1973 Kazakhstanskaya Pravda (Alma-Ata) carried an article by Dr. V. Podachin titled “Careful Paramedicine”. The article explained from Podachin’s perspective, how there was no neuropsychic state proof of telepathic transmission and that the whole telepathy community, was a joke to the law of cause and effect.

As a response to the criticism, a long paper called “Parapsychology fiction or reality” was published by the Soviet Academy of pedagogical sciences. Where they pointed that, “Some so-called para-psychological phenomena do happen, however, the main obstacle to the acceptance of their existence is ignorance of the basis of their operation.” While the file doesn’t really say what phenomena they were talking about, they seemed to hint towards Kirlian Photography and Dermal Optical Vision. (6)

Telepathy

The Nautilus Submarine Experiment

The first mention of the Nautilus Experiment conducted by the U.S, was according to the CIA mentioned by French reporters. Where they claimed that the atomic submarine, Nautilus, had engaged in highly successful ship-to-shore telepathic experiments in 1959. The experiments were later defined as “unfounded” by the Magazine “This Week” and forgotten. Apparently, the source of information about this experiment came from a best-selling French book, Le Matin des Magiciens, by Louis Pauwels (French journalist), and Jacques Bergier ( Chemical engineer, member of the French resistance, spy, journalist).

While the rumor ended up being known to us as a Hoax, and a terrible mistake done by a “novice french journalist”, Jacques Bergier always affirmed during interviews that everything in that particular book was, in reality, true.

One thing we know is that, if this were to be true, it wouldn’t be something new. Since 1950, the CIA has actively conducted experiments through the Navy and the Air-force without the knowledge or consent of its citizens. Experiments dealing with electromagnetic weapons, drugs, biological/bacterial weapons, and possibly psychotic weapons. All of this under the excuse of “National Security purposes”.

So, we are left to wonder, did it or did it not happen?

Unfortunately, all we really have is “what people have said, against what other people have said”, regarding the accuracy of whether it happened or not. However, we can surely know, that it wasn’t this scandal that influenced the Russians to start their own telepathic, ESP, Biocommunications research like most people seem to speculate. Especially since it seems to be unknown to people that this game of finding mind weapons has been an exciting topic for most Intelligence agencies since they came to their existence. 

In a way, this claim about the Nautilus experiment mirrors itself with an actual experiment that was conducted by the soviets in 1956, three years prior to the Nautilus scandal. (7)

The Naumov Experiment

Dr. Pavel Naumov conducted animal biocommunication/ESP studies between a submerged Soviet Navy submarine and an ashore research station. The experiments involved a mother rabbit along with her baby rabbits and occurred around 1956, three years prior to the U.S.S Nautilus disclosure. Yes, that was the exact word the CIA chose to write on their file, “disclosure”. (8)

According to the file, Soviet scientists placed the baby rabbits aboard the submarine, while they kept the mother rabbit in a laboratory onshore. The mother rabbit was implanted with electrodes in her brain (EEGs), which was responsible to detect abnormalities in the rabbit’s brain waves.

When the submarine was submerged, the assistants killed the rabbits one by one. At each precise moment of death, they detected recordable reactions which the mother rabbit’s brain had produced. Up until 1970 the precise protocol and results of this experiment, described by Naumov, were believed to be classified. (8.1)

Around the early 60s, Igor Mogila, a journalist for the Trud Newspaper (Russian), has spoken about a Soviet Hypnotist and his involvement in military issues. The video showed footage about an incident involving the U.S. submarine “Nautilus”. However, at the time I am writing this article, I couldn’t find any further information about this experiment or this so-called video. (9)

Animals ability of Aural Perception

Soviet Research on telepathy in animals throughout the 1920s and 1930s was largely devoted to proving that telepathy between animals and humans did indeed exist. One of their experiments involved V. M. Bekhterev from Leningrad University and a circus performer known as, V. L. Durov.

According to Bekhterev, Durov’s trained dogs successfully solved arithmetic problems and identified/retrieved objects solely based on their trainer’s mental suggestions. Bekhterevs original objective was to prove that telepathy between man and animals was mediated by a form of electromagnetic radiation, but by 1937, he and other soviet parapsychologists had concluded that no form of EMR was the carrier of thought transmission. (10)

In 1962, B. B. Kazhinskiy advanced with the theory that animals are capable of visual/aural perception and reflex understanding of animal/ human behavior. He postulated that this ability resulted from the capacity of an animal to detect, (via the nervous system), analyze, and synthesize signal stimuli, given off by another animal. According to Kazhinskiy, the signals were transmitted in the form of a Bioradiational sight ray and analyzed by the percipient animal as a result of his pavlovian conditioning. ( Pavlovian conditioning: learning through association) (11)

(Bio radiational: The Soviet/Czech term of biological energy of the brain and the optical neural channels.)

At this time Soviet and Czech parapsychology research with animals was devoted exclusively to the investigation of sources of biological energy involved in physiological processes, the interactions of such energy with external fields, and the effects of externally generated fields on the physiology of animals. (12)

The transmission source of Biological Energy

According to the document, advancement towards the identification of the transmission source of biological energy transfer was gained from research at the University of Novosibirsk. Scientists there, investigated the release of energy during cell division and during cellular damage/repair, resulting from viral infections or toxic chemicals.

In over 5000 experiments with cell cultures and animal organs, it was shown that damaged cells radiated some form of energy and that this released energy was capable of causing damage to neighboring control preparations of organs/cells.

They discovered that normal cells radiated a pattern code or rhythm, where this pattern was disturbed when cellular damage occurred, becoming quite irregular. But that, patterns were transmitted from experimental to control preparations only when the cells or organs were cultured in quartz containers. Since Quartz transmits ultraviolet UV radiation, and standard laboratory glassware does not, the soviets concluded that UV radiation mediated cellular information transfer. Thanks to these discoveries at the time, they started to focus on identifying certain diseases caused by a change of cellular pattern, in means to find a cure by monitoring and altering cellular radiation codes. (13)

Czech research on energy transfer between muscle preparations from animals to man and from man to man has also demonstrated EMR as the vehicle of biological energy transfer. In experiments conducted between 1948 and 1968, at the Okres Institute of public health kutna hora Czech, Dr. Jiri Bradna, demonstrated contactless transfer, (myotransfer), of stimuli between a frog’s neuromuscular preparations. Bradna placed identical preparations side by side, a stimulation of one preparation with electric pulses causing contraction and a recorded electromyographic response in the other.

In some experiments, stimulation of muscle preparations influenced the oscillations of a pendulum and increased the muscle tension of a human subject. Bradna obtained objective proof that energy in the very High-frequency (VHF) range mediated the stimulus transmission.  He also demonstrated that myotransfer could be blocked with ferrous metal filters and aluminum; deformed with magnets, ferrites; and reflected/transmitted over waveguide/shielded with grids.  (14)

For some people out there, this might remind us of the “Conspiracy community” claim that wrapping your head with aluminum foil, would reflect the frequencies generated by our cell phone towers, radio signals, wifi signals…etc. While it is true that certain frequencies can be reflected, one would have to wrap his whole body with aluminum foil in order for it to work. This goes to show how something that is partially correct and true, ends up being twisted into a completely different story and purpose. 

Bradna also requested the successful application of myotransfer in physiotherapy. The summation of stimuli has been shown to enhance the neuromuscular responses of individuals. Where he noted that myotransfer could be used to influence the behavior of animals, and may also be a factor in altering human behavior under conditions of isolation or overcrowding. (15)

According to A. S. Presman, (a soviet biophysicist), biological and information energy exchange is a result of Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) shared between individuals, animals, and the environment. He believes that in animals, electromagnetic oscillations are synchronized by frequency matching and that the cumulative intensity is dependant on the number of individuals involved. Which led him to discover that the effects of the stimuli, occur through the midbrain (Hypothalamic). The Hypothalamus regulates diverse physiological processes in the organism, pulse, temperature, urine volume, these are said to be disturbed when exposed through changes in EMF waves.  (16)

Parnovs Perspective on Telepathy

Photo: Types of Neutrinos

Without taking a clear stand on the controversial issue of telepathy, Y. E. Parnov cited at least three paradoxes in 1966:

  1. Telepathic Communication is independent of distance
  2. Telepathic Communication is achieved without the use of the known senses and has no apparent relation to electromagnetic waves
  3. Some cases of spontaneous telepathy and clairvoyance contradict the law of causality

Parnov felt that the first paradox could be solved if the material carrier of the telepathic effect is some type of energy unlikely to dissipate in space and if all of us were linked together by some form of telepathic field. If it were to be the first paradox, the material carrier could conceivably be the Neutrino, which at least within the earth’s biosphere isn’t absorbed by matter. (17)

Neutrinos are small, almost massless particles that travel near the speed of light. Born from violent astrophysical events like exploding stars and gamma-ray bursts, they are abundant in the universe and can move as easily through lead as we move through the air. But according to scientists,  they are notoriously difficult to pin down. (18) 

Just like Parnov, Vasiliev believed that the gravitational field and some existing but unexplained factors possibly produced by the cerebral matter itself might be involved in telepathic communication, and that thought transmissions could possibly be connected to the laws of cybernetic systems.  He suggested that if it is established that neutrino particles are generated during the neuropsychic activity of the brain, then one could consider that the neutrino plays a role in thought transmission. (19)

In the second case of Parnovs paradoxes, it might be suspected that in addition to the inductor and percipient, telepathic phenomena could involve an unspecified number of people for amplification of the signal, just like a photomultiplier would amplify light. It is not quite clear which type of neutrino could be responsible for the transmission of telepathic signals, however, it is possible that people are interlinked by some form of neutrino field, which would support the amplification theory. (20)

The third paradox was the least reliable and the one to receive the most criticism. It was the concept of a closed time. In which notions such as past and future become relative even beyond the theory of relativity, by accepting such theory, it must be assumed as a matter of fact that the human brain can somehow locate the future by means of the neutrino. Parnov observed that other theoreticians had hypothesized that the neutrinos peculiar behavior is due to the fact that this particle moves from the future into the past rather than the other way around. 

Another theory that supported the third paradox, is based on the law of conservation of combined parity, advanced by L. D. Landau. According to him, symmetry is preserved in any system whenever the left is substituted by the right and a particle by an antiparticle. It appears that all relationships are invariant with respect to time inversion. Thus Parnov concluded that the third paradox may contradict the letter but not the spirit of modern physics. (21) 

I. M. Kogan’s experiments with Telepathy on Humans

The experiments were divided into four groups: 

  1. The mental suggestion of an act involving objects at short distances
  2. Mental suggestions of the image of an object and selection of a given object at short distances
  3. The mental suggestion of object images over long distances
  4. Mental transmission of object images over long distances

Apparently, the rate of telepathic information transmission varied between 0.005 and 0.1 bit/sec and the information transmission depended upon the distance which it had to travel. It was also discovered that emotions and imagery telepathic messages were easier to perceive than actual phrases.  (22)

According to Peter Rezek (1973), the main cause for the lack of comprehension within telepathic phenomena is also due to our lack of understanding towards ordinary perception. He believed that understanding ordinary perception alone, could be the key to understanding telepathy and that on the other hand ESP, (extrasensory perception), could become the basis for understanding perception in general. 

Psychotronic Model of Man 

The Psychotronic model of man was meant to be a rather simplified and schematic form of showing how man was made, proposed by Josef Wolf of Prague. 

According to him, his model is universal, meaning that it is applied not just for man but also for all living organisms. 

Principle spheres of Man: 

  • The somatic/biological self: Represented by a triangle
  • The psychic/mental self: A circle inside the somatic/biological 
  • The Psychotronic/parapsychic self: A circle around the somatic and the mental

He also went on to describe the different types of telepathic occurrences based on experiments: 

  • Type one: The ego, as an individual, initial point
  • Type two: Identical, psychotronic, and psychosomatic identification between two individuals 
  • Type three: Platonic, the ideal type of pure psychic and psychotronic connection 
  • Type four and five: Telepathic, minimal to maximal psychosomatic coupling, here is also assumed that there could be two different modes of telepathic transfer. 
  • Type six, seven, and eight: Genetic or psychosomatic coupling among several individuals. (Example: Relatives) 
  • Type nine, ten, and over: Higher psychotronic coupling involving many individuals, achieved with perfect mathematical physical tools and corresponding system of psychotronic knowledge. 

 

Wolf believed that with all this new technology, Humanity has become rather dependant on it, which has been driving us into a form of dehumanization. He believed that technological dehumanization may have affected not only individuals but entire groups and perhaps all of society. 

Wolf and even specific results of experiments conducted by different types of scientists and neurologists showed that primitive people, the ethnic groups of aborigines who still live at the lowest cultural and economic level in the world, might be the types of people with the best rewarding results for studying psychic phenomena and for modeling a psychotronic profile of man. This is because they haven’t been culturally dehumanized by technology. (23)

M. Cernousek of Prague, (a Czech investigator), suggests that primitive levels exist in all human minds and that there is a regressive nature to telepathic phenomena. By regression, he means some primitivization of behavior, a return to older psychic functions on the ontogenetic plane. (Ontogeny is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to adult.)

Cernousek believed that the human brain was a memory data bank, that could subconsciously and consciously save every impression and life experience. For him, the idea of telepathic communication involves a high level of empathy between individuals, when such empathy exists he feels that information transfer occurs as a result of nearly instantaneous and simultaneous processing of similar stored information bits by the sender and receiver. (24)  His research was based on a great number of experiments.

By 1973, the Czechs have claimed that they have conducted experiments relating to the brain’s capacity of memory with LSD, the results showed them the conclusion that all of man’s activities and experiences, highly perceived or unknowingly perceived were in fact stored. While this is great, since it shows just how much potential the human brain has, it can also be used as a weapon. It has the capacity to unknowingly save up biological triggers, some of which might not be perceived by the individual. This has the potential to be used as a form of behavioral manipulation weapon. (25) 

Telepathic Hypnosis 

The ability to control people telepathically is something the Soviets have studied since 1920, even though it was only disclosed in 1960. 

The exploration began by K. O. Kotkov, a psychologist from Kharkov University, in 1924. Where he was said to be capable of manipulating the mind of individuals through telepathy from the other side of town. 

Kotkov along with his team, have noticed that by waking up an individual who was put in a hypnosis state telepathically would regain his alertness state after every 30 seconds that went by post-awakening. With that, they also ended up managing how to put an individual back to that trance sleep state telepathically. 

During forced sleep, it was questioned if the individual is having his own dreams or if they had been influenced by the telepathic hypnotist. 

Dr. Stefan Manczarski of Poland believed that this science could be the future of spreading propaganda, that just like electromagnetic waves, telepathy could be amplified. (26)

Espionage Usage

In espionage, let’s say a U.S soldier as an example, could be manipulated with some telepathic force that would put him into a trance-like state and force him to steal documents and reveal the information to the enemy. Without having any awareness of what he had done post trance symptoms. If propaganda through mind control is correctly used, the individual will be convinced that what he is doing, is for the common good of humanity. 

At the time that these files were written, it was stated that the USSR wanted to keep this information hidden and that ESP would become either a weapon or a money-making machine. (27)

Behavior modification

It has been suggested that the use of telepathy as of means to modify someone’s behavior could cause changes that could be either be beneficial or detrimental to the recipient. 

Between 1920 and early 1943, L. L. Vasiliev conducted numerous experiments involving telepathic mental suggestions. His first work involved Mental suggestion of motor (muscle) movements. (Similar tests were conducted in France by Dr. Joire of Lille.)

Vasiliev’s test subjects were asked to perform various muscular movements through the medium of telepathy, for comparative purposes, some tests were made with hypnotized percipients and individuals only placed in a relaxed state. Vasiliev conducted experiments involving the mental suggestion of visual images and sensations with and without hypnosis. The results indicated that it was altogether possible to telepathically suggest, and produce voluntary controllable motor acts as well as influence involuntary uncontrollable movements. 

It was also shown. that the best subjects for the suggestion of motor acts were rather unsuitable for the mental suggestion of visual images, and those best at the mental suggestion of visual images were unsuitable for the motor acts suggestion. Some subjects under hypnosis responded more readily to the verbal suggestions of a sensory nature, while others were more responsive to verbal suggestions of the motor type. After a series of experiments, Vasiliev concluded that mental suggestions involving hypnosis by taking one into a sleep/relaxed state would provide the most fruitful results.  (28) 

According to the documents, Parapsychologists in Leningrad and Moscow demonstrated the telepathic manipulation of consciousness and correlated it with systematic EEG recordings. The Naumov-Sergeyev-Pavlova team found that EEG recordings changed dramatically when the telepathic impulse contained a message affecting human emotions. 

Examples:

  • Transmission of negative emotions; Elicited the appearance of cross excitation of the brain. The EEG changed immediately to the tired state of the brain dominated by slow hypersynchronized waves of the delta and theta type. 
  • Percipients of negative emotions: The EEG showed that after three minutes of being exposed to the negative emotions the percipients would begin to regain their natural state. 
  • Other tests involved the sending of the feeling of anxiety, which resulted in a suffocating and dizziness blow to the head. 

The team uncovered impressive data on the power of thought, and concluded that a person doesn’t have to conjure up his own dark thoughts, someone else can do it and telepathically transmit it to them. Even blood cells levels would change according to the tests, showing that telepathy has a form of biological effect which could be used to alter human health. (29)

Dr. Manczarski believed that if one were to master telepathy, it would become a subtle new modus for the influencers of the world. At the time some western followers of the Czech/Soviet Parapsychology research, were concerned about their psychic research since it could also cause detrimental effects of subliminal perception techniques that could be used against U.S personnel and allies. The west followers at the time also stated that the subliminal messages could be sent through television signals or telepathic means. (30) 

It is quite interesting, yet sad to see how the interest within the secret services has always depended on whether something has any capacity to manipulate/alternate someone’s thoughts, mobility, or awareness. While many might claim that as long as the transfer of telepathy remains unknown and unable to be understood it will be nothing but pseudo-science, it still doesn’t make something untrue or unreal, even if it scares modern science. However, this also shows us just how unaware we are about our brain’s capacity.

There are many other subjects, experiments, projects in the field of Parapsychology declassified by the CIA and the USSR, which I will be covering in the next few posts. Things which should concern us, since it has already been used towards the public for selfish reasons, through social media, politics, advertisements and so on… 

Bibliography

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  29. Soviet and Czechoslovakian Parapsychology Research (U), Publication Sept. 1975, Page 37
    (https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP96-00792R000600350001-3.pdf)
  30. Soviet and Czechoslovakian Parapsychology Research (U), Publication Sept. 1975, Page 35
    (https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP96-00792R000600350001-3.pdf)

 

 

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